Lincoln states that the nation was born and founded on equality for man kind, people have died defending their rights of being equal. The effect of the last 82 words explains all Lincoln's points and leaves the reader understanding the most important points.
Good start. Make sure you give specific evidence--quotes from the text--to build your ideas.
2: What does Lincoln refer to in his opening sentence? What is the effect of this reference?
In his opening sentence Lincoln refers to the beginning of the nation founded not too long ago, and references the Declaration of Independence: the founding document to the nation that he was speaking to in this Gettysburg Address. The effect this reference has on the listener/reader is to remind them of their history, the founding laws that were set to make our country the best that it could be and where history had led them to, a civil war.
Good discussion of the role of history and foundational documents. Build in more direct evidence (quotes) from the text to deepen your discussion.
Throughout the great yet somewhat short speech of the Gettysburg Address Abraham Lincoln made many statements about the great bloodshed of the civil war and how the nation should endure, and that everyone should act so as not to have caused the fallen soldiers to die in vain. Thus through the word usage and a short and sweet deliverance many literary elements can be determined, one of which being tone. The overall tone of the speech though can be summed up with two adjectives as being, serious and hopeful.
Make sure Blog responses are submitted here. This way all peers can share the knowledge. You have strong points. Using direct evidence, quotes, would build this piece. Also--use commas to direct the reader through your sentences.
7) In Lincoln’s speech I found several examples of parallelism. These word and phrases are examples because Lincoln continuously uses them throughout his speech which persuades the audience of his views. His views state that the country needs to fulfill “the task” so that those who died and who struggled did not do so in vain. The effect of parallelism in Lincoln’s speech makes his points much more emphatic.
“new nation, any nation, that nation, that war, that field, that nation”
“conceived in Liberty, dedicated to the proposition, so conceived, so dedicated”
“we cannot dedicate¬- we cannot consecrate- we cannot hallow”
“of the people, by the people, for the people”
“who struggled here, who fought here”
Excellent examples of parallelism and good identification of their impact.
Lincoln uses the juxtaposition how the new rich nation should not be cared for but can be fought for because of wut the people believe in. In the antitheses he talks about how even though we have great dedication we cannot do this because of the men that died in this great country
In initial replies, it would be good to cite the definition and then find the examples. The Terminology Flashcards will help in the future.
Juxtaposition--unassociated ideas, words, phrases are placed next to each other, to surprise or disrupt your association.
(we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow
Antithesis--direct contrast of structurally parallel word grouping for the purpose of contrast.
"brave men, living and dead"
"add or detract"
In the Gettysburg Address Abraham Lincoln says “the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here.” As seen it is quite ironic, since right here and now Lincoln’s speech is still remembered and is widely known. His speech has survived for almost 149 years. The reason for it staying alive so long is probably because he was able to easily express the nation’s grief and devotion in a speech that only lasted for a couple minutes.
Consider also how Lincoln's use of allusions to the foundational documents of the "new nation" are contrasted with the "great civil war" and a hope for a return to the ideal of "government of the people, by the people, for the people." Here, the speech ushers him into American history.
13. Does Lincoln support Parker's assertion that "the political ideals of the nation are transcendent, not empirical"?
Abraham Lincoln does support that notion that the political ideals of the nation are transcendant and not empirical. According to the definition of transcendant, meaning, "lying beyond the ordinary range of perception," evidence shows Lincoln shared this belief. By looking at how Lincoln believed that through the price paid of today; for example in the war, Lincoln can see the future affects it will have. An example in the text would consist of "It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced; "this passage demonstrates Lincoln's belief and knowledge in the plan that the war would affect America in the future for the better.This is completely opposite to the views of empirical, which would mean based on experience, on observation alone, or capable of being disproved. What is occurring during the analysis between how America is transcendant or empirical, can be found somewhat similar as to what occurred in European history during the medieval ages, in reference to the differences between scholasticism and humanism. In this case the transcendentalism would refer to the humanistic view, or the belief in humans to do better things in the future, a belief that gives vision to the future. Whereas the scholastic view would be similar to empirical, the experience that it would be based on would be the bible for example, or the highest scholars, meaning that society could not be furthered and what was known was known. If we were to see inside Lincoln's mind I believe we would find that he did in fact support Parker in thinking that the ideals of the nation are transcendant and not empirical.
Do you think that Lincoln " went behind human history and appealed to human nature?"
I do not believe that he went behind human history but rather he instilled hope for the future of America. In analysis of 'going behind human history' one might conclude that human history would consist of people treating each other poorly and not instilling equal rights among all people. Instead of surveying the past Lincoln instead focused on the ideas of human nature, which in essence does apply to the declaration of independence such as " dedicated to the proposal that all men are created equal."
Excellent use of the text. Also, defining terms is extremely helpful to your classmates, allowing them to engage in the conversation with the same knowledge of transcendent and empirical. Good references to prior knowledge that your peers may share from World History.
You do well to focus on the shared values in the second half--the ideals, which in many ways are part of how we define American values.
Abraham Lincoln used perish instead of died, fade away, or pass away because perish means to die or be destroyed through violence. Lincoln could've used died or pass away, but he wanted to get the point across that those soldiers died for the country, and they fought for America's independence not to long ago. If it wasn't for them, America couldn't have got to where they were at that point in history.
Good investigation of diction (word choice). Think also how the connotations of the word perished (more formal) are supported by other word choices (dedicate, consecrate, hallow) as Lincoln reflects on the death of so many.
12. Provide one example of each-ethos, logos, and pathos. Which one is the most prominent and effective in the speech?
Ethos is language used to express to the audience that the speaker is respectable and credible. Lincoln uses the pronoun “we” at the start of his sentences to show that he is not above his people. This usage shows his audience that he is with them as an equal and works to earn their respect.
Logos is the use of logic or facts to convince the audience the validity of the speaker. Lincoln states that the civil war is “ testing whether the nation…can long endure.” This is a true challenge of the situation and shows his audience that he knows what is going on. By presenting facts Lincoln shows that there is reason and truth in his argument.
Pathos is language appealing to the emotions of the audience to earn their support. Lincoln states “We have come to dedicate a portion of the field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that the nation might live”. This line appeals to the audience’s emotion through their knowledge and connection with those who died for the cause. The sorrow and pain they feel for the lost is brought up in Lincoln’s speak to further motivate the audience.
I feel that pathos is the most prominent of the three and the most effective in The Gettysburg Address. Throughout his speak Lincoln appeals to the audience’s emotion including the sorrow felt for the dead, the desire to give their deaths meaning, and the pride of one’s nation.
Good use of definitions and examples from the speech. I would argue that logos also includes "fact" and in this speech--the "facts" of America--through the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution--also is a persuasive technique where he reminds his listeners of the founding values of the government.
5. Examine the diction use to discuss life and death and its effects.
In the second paragraph President Lincoln says, “… as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.” This word choice gives a perception of death as honorable and respectable, which in some cases death can be. The start to that sentence was, “We have come to dedicate a portion of that field…,” this portion of the sentence shows how the living are working together, with one another, to give respect to those who have fallen. Another example of the living wanting to respect and show how thankful they are to the fallen is when Lincoln says, “… that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain….”
Good direct reference to text. Give a little more time to analysis after your quote--build the idea of life and death in reflection to how it serves Lincoln's purpose.
3. In Lincoln's Gettysburg Address speech, he is not there to talk and answer questions; Lincoln has a brief speech meant to captivate the audience, it's a rhetorical speech, drawing from the countries liberties to daze the audience, and make them think. The speech is not too long, so Lincoln doesn't have to worry about the audience getting lost.
Think about the situation and the audience and the purpose of the speech more specifically. Build in evidence. Also, consider the mix of sentences, especially the long one in such a short speech.
9) Note the rhetorical shift Lincoln indicates with “But” in paragraph 3. Explain its purpose and effect.
Lincoln uses the “But” to indicate to the audience that the focus of his speech is changing from one plane in time to another; he implements three of these planes, in the forms of past, present, and future. The “But” implies that the ultimate focus of the speech, the future, is separate and clearly distinct from its two counterparts: while the past and the present (which together comprise the first, and less remarkable, half of the Address) cannot be altered, the future will be directly influenced by the decisions of the State and its individuals. This message is empowering to the audience, and grants listeners a sense of control and purpose.
Clear use of how syntactical choices create relationships between ideas. Good identification of past, present, and future. Also, you could include direct evidence which gives examples of what follows the "but."